Friday, January 26, 2007
a Wikipedia URL
“M-Learning is the intersection of mobile computing and e-learning: accessible resources wherever you are, strong search capabilities, rich interaction, powerful support for effective learning, and performance-based assessment. E-Learning independent of location, time or space” (Quinn, 2000).
Quinn C (2000). M-Learning. Mobile, Wireless, In-Your-Pocket Learning. Linezine, Fall 2000. Available at http://www.linezine.com/2.1/features/cqmmwiyp.htm
From a pedagogical perspective, mobile learning supports a new dimension in the
educational process. Characteristics (Chen et. al., 2002) of mobile learning include:
1. urgency of learning need;
2. initiative of knowledge acquisition;
3. mobility of learning setting;
4. interactivity of the learning process;
5. 'situatedness' of instructional activities; and
6. integration of instructional content.
Chen, Y.S., Kao, T.C., Sheu, J.P. and Chiang, C.Y. (2002). A Mobile Scaffolding-
Based Bird-Watching Learning System. In M. Milrad, H. U. Hoppe and Kinshuk
(Eds.), IEEE International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies
Education (pp. 15-22). Los Alamitos, USA: IEEE Computer Society.
“…obstacles can be summarised in the following form:
• Limited memory and storage are major inhibitors.
• Screens are generally too small for the use of any sophisticated applications.
• Intermittent connectivity is a major barrier.
• Cross-platform solutions are not yet possible.
• Links to learning management systems or enterprise systems are in an embryonic stage of development.
• The industry is plagued by proprietary solutions.
• Transmitting across different browsers and platforms is almost impossible.
• Existing applications are not easily integrated to the mobile technology environment.
• Start-up costs are invariably high.
• Tracking outcomes is difficult.
• Security is a major issue.
• Cost of accessing major third-party networks is punitive.
• Multiple permissions are necessary in terms of negotiated access.
• Continuous technology development militates against stability and sustainability in terms of mounting viable m-learning applications.” (McLean, N., 2003).
McLean, N. (2003). The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview. A Report for the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Vodafone Group Foundation.
accessed 18nov06 at
Brown T H (2003). Towards a Model for M-Learning in Africa.
Available at http://www.up.ac.za/telematic/article.pdf
Kinshuk (2003). Adaptive mobile learning technologies.
Available at http://www.globaled.com/articles/Kinshuk2003.pdf
Mobilearn (2003). The Mobilearn Project Vision.
Available at http://www.mobilearn.org/vision/visiton.htm
O’Malley C et al (2003). Mobilearn WP4 – Guidelines for Learning/Teaching/Tutoring in a Mobile Environment. Available at: http://www.mobilearn.org/download/results/guidelines.pdf
Singh H (2003). Leveraging Mobile and Wireless Internet.
Available at http://www.learningcircuits.com/2003/sep2003/singh.htm
Possible mLearning working definition--
mLearning is the transmission or reception of intentional or incidental learning through physically small mobile and portable devices.